Category Archives: Big Bang Model


In 1939, there were two important developments for the topic of General Relativistic gravitational collapse. Robert Oppenheimer and his student Hartland Snyder published a paper entitles “On Continued Gavitational Contraction’’ in Physical Review which, it is believed, that showed for the first time that continued GR collapse should lead to the formation of Black Holes (BHs):

Following this Einstein published a paper entitled “On a Stationary System with Spherical Symmetry Consisting of Many Gravitating Masses” in Annals of Mathematics:

Here he concluded that

The essential result of this investigation is a clear understanding as to why the “Schwarzschild singularities” do not exist in physical reality. Although the theory given here treats only clusters whose particles move along circular paths it does not seem to be subject to reasonable doubt that mote general cases will have analogous results. The “Schwarzschild singularity” does not appear for the reason that matter cannot be concentrated arbitrarily. And this is due to the fact that otherwise the constituting particles would reach the velocity of light.’’

Einstein’s paper was intuitive, instead of studying actual non-stationary collapse process, he assumed that eventually the collapsing object would comprise rotating & counter-rotating mass points. But I have heard opinions that Einstein’s paper was incorrect

though I have rarely found papers which could pin point the incorrectness of this paper, e.g. one can find the citations of this classic paper here:…56..455O&refs=CITATIONS&db_key=AST

In science only scientific truth is sacrosanct and there is nothing wrong in criticizing even the stalwarts including Einstein, if appropriate.  However, I have a feeling that many pass adverse comment on it as a matter of hearsay without ever carefully going through it (I too have only browsed it) particularly because it attempts to refute the pet idea of “Black Holes’’. And here I would like to highlight a particular case of such adverse criticism.

Once internet became popular by late 1990s, the web got two pioneers of blogging on Theoretical Physics, particularly, GR. First it was John Baez, professor of mathematics in UCAL, Riverside and, second, his erstwhile close friend Chris Hillman (Ph.D. mathematics, University of Washington). Baez may be a good researcher in mathematics and some aspects of mathematical physics while Hillman has hardly any worthwhile research track record. This duo had good knowledge of Differential Geometry and many mathematical aspects of GR. And of course they were pioneers of use of internet. Unfortunately they mistook these two qualities as super expertise in GR itself: they virtually declared themselves as the custodian of GR & relativistic cosmology; and they decided to be ultimate judge for any research which they perceived to be “against the mainstream’’. Not that they cared to disprove such “anti-mainstream research papers’’ in a professional & painstaking manner. On the other hand, this duo would heap scorn & ridicule not only such research but sometimes on the authors i.e. almost personal attack. Sometime they would mention some mathematical/differential geometry mumbo-jumbo which might actually be irrelevant. In any case, this duo developed huge fan following on net and the fans would be impressed by mathematics, jargons, rants, and even ridicules.  They would compensate for the lack of substance in their critiques by liberal use of adjectives “CRANKY’’ & “CRACKPOT’’. Most of such attacks would be launched from the following site of Baez (now deleted by Baez himself)

In particular, this site contained a Chapter entitled “HALL OF SHAME’’. I recall, here they would ridicule and castigate claims like (i) Gravitational Waves May Not Carry Any Energy Momentum (view held by Einstein, Rosen, now Fred Cooperstock ..), (ii) Steady State Theory of Cosmology (Gold, Hoyle, Burbridge, Narlikar). But the No. 1. Target of scorn was the claim that “There cannot be true Black Holes’’. And it is in this context that Baez & Hillman slammed Einstein:

 In 1939, Einstein publishes a paper which presents a rather desperate (and entirely incorrect) argument that nobody could collapse past its Schwarzschild radius. The nature of the conceptual errors in this paper show that Einstein still did not understand either the distinction between a coordinate singularity (the boundary of a coordinate chart) and a geometric singularity, nor the distinction between local and global structure. (Indeed, there is no evidence that Einstein ever understood correctly the geometry of all exact solutions to his field equations).”


As already mentioned, Einstein’s assumption that the eventual state the collapsing object may be represented stationary circular orbits of mass points cannot be exactly correct, and thus his conclusion about non-formation of BHs is not convincing at all. But otherwise, is his paper “entirely incorrect’’?

As far as I am aware there only one research paper which complained of mathematical inaccuracy in his treatment:

whose abstract is “It has been found that the equations of the gravitational field of a large number of gravitating particles of equal masses with spherical symmetry not were given correctly by Einstein. The correct form of these equations has been obtained here. However, the conclusions, arrived at by Einstein, remain unaltered.’’

But there was another paper which showed that even Einstein’s mathematics was correct

“ It is shown in the present paper that, although Einstein’s paper is extremely confusing and contains some mistakes, Misra’s criticisms are completely unfounded. A general and clear derivation of Einstein’s results is given in this paper.’’


This paper was the maiden one which considered the importance of tangential pressure in the context of gravitational collapse.  And such a configuration of rotating & counter rotating point masses (DUST) is known as “Einstein Cluster’’ and hundreds of papers have been written on it.  Some examples:

  1.  “Critical Collapse of Einstein Cluster’’, A. Mahajan et al. Theor.Phys.118:865-878, 2007, which finds that “ We show analytically that the collapse evolution ends either in formation of a black hole or in dispersal..’’, i.e., indeed BHs may not form.
  2. “Gravitational Collapse with Tangential Pressure’’, Malafarina, Daniele; Joshi, Pankaj S, International Journal of Modern Physics D, 20, 463-495 (2011)

Here the authors claim that little addition of Tangential Pressure may inhibit BH formation. They however conclude that a “Naked Singularity’’ would form because they overlook the fact that an ideal p=0 fluid must have density=0 too.


Their paper too contained some minor algebric mistakes as has been pointed out in series of my peer reviewed papers. But we may ignore such minor mistakes and recognize it as a real pioneering paper. Yet this paper is physically vacuous & completely misleading. Why?

Primary reason is that no physical fluid can be completely pressure-less unlike what was assumed by Oppenheimer & Snyder (OS). This p=0 condition tacitly imply that the density of the fluid too is zero. This has been explicitly shown by me in several papers, but here, let me cite only two:

  •  “The fallacy of Oppenheimer Snyder collapse: no general relativistic collapse at all, no black hole, no physical singularity’’, A. Mitra, Astrophysics and Space Science, 332, Lett. 43-48 (2011); (arXiv:1101.0601)
  •  “The Mass of the Oppenheimer-Snyder Hole: Only Finite Mass Quasi-Black Holes’’, A. Mitra & K.K. Singh, International Journal of Modern Physics D 22, id. 1350054 (2013); DOI: 1142/S0218271813500545

The mathematical BH generated by OS collapse thus has a gravitational mass M=0 which would require infinite proper time to form, i.e., it would never form or at the most be an ETERNAL process. The fastest collapse results where p=0, and if such a case is eternal, then any other collapse involving resisting effects like pressure gradient, heat flow and radiation must too be an ETERNAL process. Hence continued GR collapse should result in “Eternally Collapsing Object’’ (ECO) rather than any finite mass BH or so-called “Naked Singularity’’.

In the extremely ultra-relativistic regime, the heat and radiation generated within the collapsing object get trapped by the self-gravity and the resultant luminosity must attain its Eddington value by which inward pull of gravity gets balanced by the outward push of radiation:

  • Radiation pressure supported stars in Einstein gravity: eternally collapsing objects, A. Mitra, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 369, pp. 492-496 (2006)
  • Likely formation of general relativistic radiation pressure supported stars or `eternally collapsing objects’, A. Mitra & N.K. Glendenning, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society: Letters, 404, pp. L50-L54 (2010)

Thus, Einstein’s physical intuition about non-existence of (finite mass) BHs was correct though he could not see (zero mass) BHs as the asymptotical solutions of physical continued gravitational collapse of a chargeless fluid. However, with regard, to a point particle possessing a charge, Einstein & Rosen, Physical Review,  48,  pp. 73-77 (1935) had written that

It also turns out that for the removal of the singularity it is not necessary to take the ponderable mass m positive. In fact, as we shall show immediately, there exists a solution free from singularities for which the mass constant m vanishes. Because we believe that these massless solutions are the physically important ones we will consider here the case m = 0”.

Most of the present day BH/Singularity “experts” and many of the GR experts having, in some cases, more mathematical/numerical skill than Einstein 30 were actually experts on either Differential Geometry, or Applied Mathematics relevant for GR studies or Numerical Computations riding on GR and not necessarily on the intricate and subtle physics lying at the throbbing heart of GR. And as to baseless critique by two upstart flamboyant experts, Baez & Hillman, we may recall Einstein’s famous quote:

Since the mathematicians have invaded the theory of relativity, I do not understand it myself anymore.”

Despite Eddington’s unjustified public denouncement of Chandrasekhar’s correct result on upper limit of cold self-gravitating objects, Eddington’s physical intuition and insight were far superior to that of Chandrasekhar; he was the first to correctly visualize the unphysical Nature of (finite mass) BHs and

insisted hat

I think there should be a law of nature to prevent a star from behaving in this absurd way”

And as emphasized by my research, this “law of Nature” is nothing but the bending of radiation due to strong self-gravity and consequent attainment of a critical Eddington luminosity. Of course, at that time, Eddington too failed to recognize that the gravitational contraction process must be radiative and a BH (with M = 0) should indeed be the asymptotical solution of the continued collapse process. It would be recognized much later that Chandrasekhar’s result about upper limit of cold objects was almost universally misinterpreted, most notably by Chandrasekhar himself, as an upper limit on mass of all compact objects, hot or cold. Thus it would be recognized that Chandrasekhar’s discovery had a profound retrograde effect on the development of the physical theory of continued gravitational collapse and relativistic astrophysics in general. Probably this mis-interpretation  along with the misinterpretation that the OS collapse was physical and suggested formation of finite mass BHs (when in reality, there is no collapse without finite pressure and heat flux, or, mathematically, M = 0 in such a case), put the clock back by 60 years as far as the question of the final state of continued collapse is concerned.

Interestingly, this result is in agreement with the intuition of Oppenheimer & Snyder  too:

“Physically such a singularity would mean that the expressions used for the energy-momentum tensor does not take into account some essential physical fact which would really smooth the singularity out. Further, a star in its early stages of development would not possess a singular density or pressure, it is impossible for a singularity to develop in a finite time.”

Thus though OS could find “singularity’’ for their unrealistic toy model of collapse, they probably knew that realistic physical gravitational collapse must not generate any singularity. Alas this warning was overlooked my by most of the GR and mathematical relativists. And Einstein’s intuition that there cannot be true black holes has been proven correct.

Abhas Mitra, January 31, 2014!


U-Turn of the Black Hole Research of Thanu Padmanabhan: Herd Behavior & Sociology of Modern Physics

As discussed in a previous blog, the noted scholar and researcher on gravitation, Prof. Thanu Padmanabhan, noted way back in 1988

 that the concept of Black Holes (BH) not only  leads to various inconsistencies but is unphysical too in certain ways. The  following paper coauthored by him

1. “The Schwarzschild Solution:Some Conceptual Difficulties’‘ by J.V. Narlikar & T. Padmanabhan published in Foundations of Physics, Vol. 18, pp.659-668 (1988)

mentioned that

“Nevertheless there are several conceptual difficulties associated with this simple and elegant solution that are usually ignored because of its manifest usefulness. Our purpose in this article is to highlight these problems since we feel that their eventual resolution will advance our understanding of the complex basic interaction of gravitation.”

Even before this the ABSTRACT of the paper may be recalled:

It is shown that inconsistencies arise when we look upon the Schwarzschild solution as the space-time arising from a localized point singularity. The notion of black holes is critically examined, and it is argued that, since black hole formation never takes place within the past light cone of a typical external observer, the discussion of physical behavior of black holes, classical or quantum, is only of academic interest. It is suggested that problems related to the source could be avoided if the event horizon did not form and that the universe only contained quasi-black holes.”

About continued gravitational collapse to a point, these authors wrote that

“Thus we have arrived at an inconsistency at R = 0. It could be argued that a point source at R= 0 is unrealistic and that the Schwarzschild solution works for a distributed source only. This way out is unfortunately ruled out by the phenomenon of gravitational collapse that inevitably results in all the matter converging to R=0 in finite
comoving time.”

Accordingly, this paper repeatedly stressed so-called “Black Hole Candidates”  could be just  Quasi Black Holes rather than true BHs. Also in principle, a true BH cannot be observed directly. ”

Later in the following paper:

2.Phase volume occupied by a test particle around an incipient black hole

T. Padmanabhan, Physics Letters A, Volume 136,  p. 203(1989)

he wrote that

“The volume of phase space g(E) available for a system with a definite energy E plays an important role in statistical mechanics. We compute g(E) for a test particle in Schwarzschild geometry and show that it diverges as the source evolves to form a black hole.”

The consequence of the DIVERGENCE of g(E) is that Entropy of the ideal gas too would diverge in case an Event Horizon (EH) would form. Note that when ever unphysical or singular properties of the EH become manifest BH proponents shout “Oh! This must be a coordinate singularity”. But Padmanabhan correctly emphasized that blowing up of g(E) or entropy was not all any coordinate effect, on the other hand such a divergence shows true singular property of the EH. In fact one can easily trace the reason for the divergence of Entropy to the singular properties of the metric coefficients of the Schwarzschild Metric at the EH:

So as per the research carried out by Padmanabhan during the 1980s, atleast as far as General Relativity (GR) is concerned,

(i) The singularity of the Schwarzschild Metric at the EH can lead to genuine physical singularities, i.e., EH does not correspond to a mere “Coordinate Singularity”, and

(ii) The concept of BH is unphysical, and the so-called BH Candidates should be “Quasi- BHs” which to a far away observer look almost as compact and BLACK as theoretical BHs.

Following this ,a logical and honest future course of his Black Hole research could have been to explore the subtleties and nuances of the complex topic of General Relativistic Gravitational Collapse to see how continued collapse must prevent formation of Theoretical BHs, and on the other hand lead to only Quasi-BHs.

But This Was Not To Be

However, Padmanabhan did not pursue any such uncertain, un-trodden and tortuous path of research. Instead, after a hibernation in BH research;  he went on writing papers after papers which assumed that (iii) Gravitational Collapse Must Produce Black Holes and Event Horizons  and (iv) Black Holes and Event Horizons are one of the most important concepts in not only gravitation but physics as a whole IN DIRECT CONTRADICTION to his own previous ideas (i) and (ii).

 In particular, the idea of  Event Horizons became the basis of his future research in Gravitation which won him all accolades and awards. Recall his later papers:

3. “Quantum Structure of Spacetime and Entropy of Schwarschild Black Holes” : Physical Review Letters, Volume 81,  pp.4297 (1988)

4. “Event horizon of a Schwarzschild black hole: Magnifying glass for Planck length physics”: Physical Review D, Volume 59,  id. 124012 (1999)

5. “Classical and quantum thermodynamics of horizons in spherically symmetric spacetimes”: Classical and Quantum Gravity, Volume 19, pp. 5387 (2002)

6. “Thermodynamics of Horizons”: Modern Physics Letters A, Volume 17, pp. 923-942 (2002)

7. “Why Gravity Has No Choice: Bulk Spacetime Dynamics Is Dictated by Information Entanglement Across Horizons”: General Relativity and Gravitation, v. 35, p. 2097-2103 (2003)

8. “Entropy of Horizons, Complex Paths and Quantum Tunnelling”: Modern Physics Letters A, Volume 19, pp. 2637, (2004)

9. “Gravity and the thermodynamics of horizons”: Physics Reports, Volume 406, p. 49-125 (2005)

10. “Entropy of null surfaces and dynamics of spacetime”: Physical Review D, vol. 75,  id. 064004 (2007) (Note: Null Surface is a surface similar to an “Event Horizon”).

11. “Einstein’s equations as a thermodynamic identity: The cases of stationary axisymmetric horizons and evolving spherically symmetric horizons”: Physics Letters B, Volume 652, p. 338-342 (2007)

12. “Gravity as AN Emergent Phenomenon”: International Journal of Modern Physics D, Volume 17,  pp. 591-596 (2008)

13. “Ideal gas in a strong gravitational field: Area dependence of entropy”: Physical Review D, vol. 83, Issue 6, id. 064034 (2011)

14. “Structure of the gravitational action and its relation with horizon thermodynamics and emergent gravity paradigm”: Physical Review D, vol. 87, id. 124011 (2013)

Let us not first debate “Which of the two Self-contradictory phases of research of Padmanabhan is scientifically correct?”

Note that even if one would consider Quantum Gravity BHs, the latter must yield GR results for large quantum numbers or for macroscopic cases. Thus even QG BH research must be organically related to classical GR results. And let the latter phase, Papers 3-14 be correct.  Note there is no harm if an honest researcher would change his course of research as new arguments, new facts would emerge . In fact, up to 1996, I was a strong believer in the Black Hole paradigm, but I took a U-turn by 1998, as my research showed that my earlier belief was incorrect.

If Padmanabhan were an honest researcher and committed to scientific truths alone, he should have offered due explanation as to how his initial research which showed that GR should not allow BHs and EHs was incorrect. But he made no such attempts. In fact in a very mysterious manner, he never cited his own papers 1 & 2 in almost 100 papers, articles, books authored by him which involved the concept of “Black Holes” and “Horizons” or “Null Surfaces”!!!!!!

Now let us quickly adjudge which phase of his research is the physically and scientifically correct. In a series of peer reviewed papers by the present author, it has been shown that Black Holes and Event Horizons Indeed Correspond to Genuine Physical Singularities and Hence They Are Unphysical & Must Not Form. To cut a long story short, it has been shown that

  • A Radially Falling Material Test Particle Would Behave Like a Photon If It would Reach The Event Horizon Irrespective of the Coordinate System Used; and this is not allowed by GR.
  • The Coordinate Independent Scalar Acceleration Felt By An Observer At the EH is INFINITE indicating EH is a PHYSICAL SINGULARITY. In fact this is the reason that “nothing not even light can escape the Event Horizon”.
  • There are indeed scalars made out of Rimmanian Tensor which become singular at the Event Horizon and a Free Falling Observer Can Very Well Detect this singular surface contrary to the basic argument of BH paradigm: REF:

16. “A note on a local effect at the Schwarzschild sphere”

Karlhede, A.; Lindstrom, U.; Aman, J. E.: General Relativity and Gravitation, vol. 14, June 1982, p. 569-571 (1982)

17. “On the Local Detectability of the Passage Through the Schwarzschild Horizon”: Tammelo, Risto; Kask, Üllar, General Relativity and Gravitation, Volume 29, p.997-1009  (1997)

18.  “Detecting Event Horizons and Stationary Surfaces”: Gass, Richard G. et al. (arXiv:gr-qc/9808055)

Eventually, these questions were uniquely settled by this blogger by showing that  Black Holes Have a Unique Gravitational Mass M=0, and they represent only asymptotic final states of continued gravitational collapse which could be formed only after radiating away entire mass-energy and angular momentum of the collapsing body. REF: 

19. Comments on “The Euclidean gravitational action as black hole entropy, singularities, and space-time voids” [J. Math. Phys. 49, 042501 (2008)]: A. Mitra, Journal of Mathematical Physics, Volume 50,  pp. 042502 (2009);  (arXiv:0904.4754)

20. “Why the astrophysical Black Hole Candidates may not be black holes at all”: A. Mitra 2004, (arXiv:astro-ph/0409049)

It has also been shown that continued collapse should naturally give rise to Eternally Collapsing Objects (ECOs):

An Eternally Collapsing Object (ECO) is a compact star that resembles a ball of fire; and it is so hot that its radiation helps it stay put despite its intense pull of gravity. Being extremely compact, ECOs mimic mathematical “Black Holes” in many ways, but there are observational reasons to believe that the so-called astrophysical “Black Holes” are really ECOs: The eruptions and jet formations from the black hole candidates are better understood if they are indeed hot balls of fire rather than a cold piece of vacuum with an imaginary surface from which “nothing, not even light can escape”.
ECOs however asymptotically shrink towards the mathematical Black Hole state of infinite compactness.

21.“ Radiation pressure supported stars in Einstein gravity: eternally collapsing objects”: A. Mitra, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Volume 369, pp. 492-496 (2006)

22. “Sources of stellar energy, Einstein Eddington timescale of gravitational contraction and eternally collapsing objects”: A. Mitra, New Astronomy, Volume 12, p. 146-160 (2006)

23. “Likely formation of general relativistic radiation pressure supported stars or `eternally collapsing objects”’: A. Mitra & N.K. Glendenning, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society: Letters, Volume 404, pp. L50-L54 (2010)

24. “Kruskal Coordinates and Mass of Schwarzschild Black Holes: No Finite Mass Black Hole at All”, A. Mitra, International Journal of Astronomy and Astrophysics, vol. 2, issue 04, pp. 236-248 (2012), 10.4236/ijaa.2012.24031

25. “The Mass of the Oppenheimer-Snyder Hole: Only Finite Mass Quasi-Black Holes”, A. Mitra & K.K. Singh, International Journal of Modern Physics D, Volume 22,  id. 1350054 (2013)

26. “Does Pressure Accentuate General Relativistic Gravitational Collapse and Formation of Trapped Surfaces?”, A. Mitra,  International Journal of Modern Physics D, Volume 22,  id. 1350021 (2013)


What Could Explain The U-Turn of Thanu Padmanabhan?

Many greatest physicists including Eddington, Einstein and Dirac did not believe in Black Holes. However they could not offer any cogent reason which would resolve this paradox characterized by beautiful & exact GR solutions. The problem became even much more complex after it was found that indeed there are indeed valid Black Hole Candidates in X-Ray Binaries, Quasars and Many Galactic Centers. These massive compact objects certainly cannot be Neutron Stars or various other Alternatives like Star Clusters or Fictitious Super Massive Stars of Hoyle & Fowler.

And definitely Padmanabhan, though a great scholar and prolific researcher, was in no position to face this challenge. In fact his two initial papers 1 & 2, though profound and EXACT, are rarely cited. On the other hand, his latter papers affirming  his faith in the Black Hole Paradigm like a Neo-Convert got thousands of citations. Thanu is a bright researcher of course aspired to be not only a mainstream author but a sort of world leader, a Big Boss, in Gravitation Research. And this is possible only for a convert and not for someone who could be dubbed as a Crank or Heretic for being idiotic enough to challenge the holy scripture. A logical course of the initial phase of the Padamanabhan research could have been an attempt to show that the crucial assumption of “Trapped Surfaces” of Hawking & Penrose were incorrect. But  such a research would immediately make him cross swords with Penrose, Hawking and all “leaders” one can conceive of. It would have also led him to challenge the idea of a “Black Hole  Thermodynamics” and put on conflict course with Bekenstein, t’Hooft and who not?

Then let alone generous citation of his papers, they might not have been accepted in the first place, alteast in journals like PRD, PRL, CQG etc. May be despite his enormous talent, he would have been considered as a pariah with no entry to Blue Blood clubs. May be, no student would be ready to get associated with such iconoclastic research in order to protect their academic futures. May be, he would not have become “Distinguished Professor” and  the would be Director of IUCAA. Such possibilities are actually endless…

Incidentally, the fact that, continued GR collapse does not allow “Trapped Surfaces” in order that matter like trajectories of the elements of a collapsing star do not become lightlike was proved by the present author:

27. “Quantum information paradox: Real or fictitious?”: A. Mitra, Pramana, vol. 73,  pp. 615-622 (2009); (arXiv:0911.3518)

His books taught  everywhere are silent on the conceptual difficulties of black holes, his discussions on Gravitational Collapse do not go beyond the idealized pressure-less collapse model of  1939 by Oppenheimer & Snyder about which my take is the following:

28. “The fallacy of Oppenheimer Snyder collapse: no general relativistic collapse at all, no black hole, no physical singularity”: A. Mitra, Astrophysics and Space Science, Volume 332, pp.43-48  (2011)

He is leading researcher in Gravity; but his real uniqueness lies elsewhere: He is the only researcher in the world who hides in own research, appears to be mortally afraid of citing his own papers 1 & 2 which challenge the BH paradigm.

This is so when these two papers are scientifically correct because (i) the blowing up of g(E) at the EH is an EXACT & CORRECT result, (ii) EHs are indeed physical singularities and correspond to the central singularity because M=0 for BHs. Can QG qualitatively change these conclusions? It should not because Quantum Green’s Function blows up at the Event Horizon, which again can be traced to metric singularity of the Schwarzschild metric there.

28. “Quantum Field Theory in Schwarzschild And Rindler Spaces”:  D. Boulware, Phy. Rev. D11, 1404 (1975).

However, one may try to hide such singular behaviors by fudging the physics, by using the jargon of “near horizon” behavior, and by avoiding the EH. Even then most of the contributions of the relevant integrals naturally come from this “near horizon”. And then one can pretend that physics of the 3-D BH interior is encoded in the 2-D EH… then holography and justification of the most speculative hypothesis of BH Theromodynamics, Hawking Radiation can also follow. Of course, once on this glorious track, acceptance of the manuscript is guaranteed in any leading journal.

Incidentally, my prediction that the so-called BH candidates are ultramagnetized ECOs (MECOs) rather than true BHs have inspired several astrophysicists and here is a 2006 Center for Astrophysics, Harvard, press release to this effect:

One may partly appreciate this key to success of Padmanabhan research by recalling that post modern theoretical research, particularly, in the topics involving may not be about physical realities at all:

In their book A Different Approach to Cosmology, Fred Hoyle, Geoffrey Burbidge and Jayant Narlikar used the photo given below to illustrate the conformist approach to standard big-bang cosmology. ‘We have resisted the temptation to name some of the leading geese,’ they say. May be the same photo help explain the enormous success of  the research career of Thanu Padmanabhan:


Indian physicist questions ‘Big Bang’ basics: NATURE India

nature INDIA

doi:10.1038/nindia.2012.181; Published online 4 December 2012

Science news

Indian physicist questions ‘Big Bang’ basics

New research published today has cast doubts on some of the crucial hypotheses of the standard ‘Big Bang’ cosmology.1

The research by Abhas Mitra of the Astrophysics Sciences Division of Bhabha Atomic Research Centre in Mumbai has, for the first time raised doubts over the physical realization of key concepts like ‘dark energy’ and ‘cosmic inflation’ that are basic to mainstream cosmology. This envisages that the universe was born out of nothingness in an infinitely powerful explosion (Big Bang) some 13.7 billion years ago.

Mitra argues that the ‘Cosmological Constant’, the fundamental ingredient behind all concepts such as dark energy and cosmic inflation should actually be non-existent — meaning zero — and cannot have a finite value as currently believed.

Modern Big Bang cosmology has in its foundation a feature called ‘inflation’. As per this inflationary big bang theory, the universe went through a momentary phase of an exponential expansion almost immediately after its birth. It was hypothesized that the new-born universe developed a positive Cosmological Constant — representing a fairly large repulsive vacuum energy —that gave rise to this runaway expansion.

Further, from 1998 onwards, the mainstream cosmology believes that the universe is just not expanding, but undergoing an accelerated expansion. This extra push for faster expansion too is believed to result again from a repulsive Cosmological Constant, and is termed as ‘dark energy’. Physically speaking, the Cosmological Constant is equivalent to an underlying background energy (dark energy) that traditional cosmologists believe exists in space even when it is devoid of matter.

Historically, such an exponential expansion driven by a ‘repulsive’ Cosmological Constant is known as a ‘de-Sitter phase’ in the name of the famous Dutch physicist Williem de-Sitter (1872-1934). “But the supposed de-Sitter expansion has a very perplexing aspect in that while some observers do perceive the explosion, there are others who do not at all see the explosion,” Mitra told Nature India.

“On the other hand, in physics, and in Einstein’s General Relativity, a genuine physical effect must be perceived by all.” The bottom line of Mitra’s highly mathematical paper is that, a quantity called ‘Expansion Scalar’ must objectively decide whether there is any genuine expansion or not.

However, the fact that the de-Sitter phase appears standstill to some observers means that this scalar is inherently zero, and which in turn implies that Cosmological Constant is actually zero, Mitra explains.

Therefore according to him, the de-Sitter explosion picture obtained by assuming a finite Cosmological Constant is only a ‘mathematical mirage’. Mitra argues that, accordingly, the ‘dark energy’ and apparent acceleration of the cosmos too could be fictitious, an artifact of explaining a complex inhomogeneous universe in terms of an over-simplified Big Bang model.

Interestingly, String Theory, which purports to unify fundamental interactions like electromagnetic and nuclear forces with gravity, also invokes an attractive (instead of repulsive) ‘Anti-de-Sitter'(Ads) feature. “It invokes this AdS/Conformal Field Theory correspondence in order to connect itself to quantum field theories of electromagnetism and nuclear interactions,” says Mitra and adds that this ‘correspondence’ is “basically a profound conjecture.”

Mitra says that the self-contradictions in standard cosmology can be removed only by considering the Cosmological Constant as zero in conformity with Einstein’s alleged comment that the introduction of the ‘Cosmological Constant’ in his general theory of relativity was the “biggest blunder” of his scientific life.

The BARC physicist says he is specially happy that his work has fundamental importance not only in cosmology but also in physics.

  • References
  1. Mitra, A. Interpretational conflicts between the static and non-static forms of the de Sitter Metric. Sci. Rep. doi: 10.1038/srep00923 (2012)

Continue reading