Coronal Mass Ejection From Sun, MECOs and Quasars

By definition “nothing not even light can escape from” a “Black Hole”. On the other hand, it has been shown that the astrophysical “Black Hole Candidates” or anything else with a finite (gravitational) mass cannot be true BHs simply because true BHs have zero gravitational mass (A. Mitra, Journal of Mathematical Physics, Volume 50, Issue 4, pp. 042502-042502-3 (2009)):

Further, it has been shown that the BHCs are likely to be ultra-magnetized, ultra-compact balls of fire/plasma called “Magnetospheric Eternally Collapsing Objects” (MECOs).

Though a fictitious BH (with supposed finite mass) can accrete matter, not much variability is expected around it because BHs do not have intrinsic magnetic field and “nothing can escape” from this dead object. In contrast MECOs are live and kicking. The magnetized plasma of MECO can cause astrophysical violence on a scale much more gigantic as compared to the Sun. And indeed BHCs in Quasars/ X-ray Binaries are much more violent and variable as compared to not only the Sun but even pulsars and Neutron Stars.

Thus it was interesting for me to note a discussion which indeed tries to connect MECOs with Quasars and Coronal Mass Ejection from the Sun:


“There is an immense magnetic field associated with quasars (See the paper by Stanley Robertson, Darryl Leiter) . A classical black hole cannot create a magnetic field and the magnetic field is stronger than accretion disk is capable of creating and is located in region of that is significantly closer the black hole that accretion disk can possible exist at.)

Classical black holes have no hair (they cannot contain a magnetic field). Very large objects when they collapse do not form a classical black hole. (See Robertson & Darryl Leiter’s paper for details.) A quantum mechanic phenomena arrests the collapsing object by forming a very, very, strong magnetic field that stops the collapse as the field creates electron/positron pair in the vacuum. The collapsed object is not stable and over time breaks apart, ejecting pieces of the super compressed collapsed object and dust. (There are massive dust clouds about quasars.) Evidence of this is Hawkins’ long term observation of quasars that found that they pulsate periodically at very long time scales (months and years) and the pulsation increase in amplitude. (All of the observed quasar pulsation increase in amplitude which indicates that there is a fundamental property and mechanism that is observed.)

What happens to massive objects when they collapse is a fundamental component in explaining a host of astronomical anomalies such as the rotational anomaly of spiral galaxies as well the very existence of spiral galaxies as compared to elliptical galaxies.

The orbital cycles of the planets influence the sun as the sun changes with time. There is a charge change. The planets take time to equalize to the change. There is a lag. There is a gradual change in solar charge with time as the cycle progresses which explains phenomena that is dependent on the length of the solar cycle. Follow the interruption of the solar magnetic cycle there are abrupt very large charge discharges. The interruption of the sun spot mechanism, stops the solar equalization mechanism which then allows the solar charge in balance to build up.

The Magnetospheric Eternally Collapsing Object (MECO) Model of Galactic Black Hole Candidates and Active Galactic Nuclei by Stanley Robertson, Darryl Leiter

The similarities of NS and GBHC properties, particularly in low and quiescent states, have been previously noted, [e.g. van der Klis 1994, Tanaka & Shibazaki 1996]. Jets and their synchrotron emissions in NS, GBHC and AGN also have obvious magnetic signatures. It is axiomatic that astrophysical objects of stellar mass and beyond have magnetic moments if they are not black holes, but an intrinsic magnetic moment is not a permissible attribute of a black hole. Yet in earlier work, [Robertson & Leiter 2002] we presented evidence for the existence of intrinsic magnetic moments of ∼ 1029−30 gauss m^3 in the galactic black hole candidates (GBHC) of low mass x-ray binary (LMXB).

Others have reported evidence for strong magnetic fields in GBHC. A field in excess of 10^8 G has been found at the base of the jets of GRS 1915+105 [Gliozzi, Bodo & Ghisellini 1999, Vadawale, Rao & Chakrabarti 2001]. A recent study of optical polarization of Cygnus X-1 in its low state [Gnedin et al. 2003] has found aslow GBHC spin and a magnetic field of ∼ 10^8 gauss at the location of its optical emission. These field strengths exceed disk plasma equipartition levels, but given the r^−3 dependence of field strength on magnetic moment, the implied magnetic moments are in very good agreement with those we report in Table 1.

Although there are widely studied models for generating magnetic fields in accretion disks, they can produce equipartition fields at best [Livio, Ogilvie & Pringle 1999], and perhaps at the expense of being too luminous [Bisnovatyi-Kogan & Lovelace 2000] in quiescence and in any case, too weak and comoving in accretion disks to drive jets. While tangled magnetic fields in accretion disks are very likely responsible for their large viscosity, [e.g. Hawley, Balbus & Winters 1999] the highly variable mass accretion rates in LMXB make it unlikely that disk dynamos could produce the stability of fields needed to account for either spectral state switches or quiescent spin-down luminosities. Both require magnetic fields co-rotating with the central object. Further, if disk dynamos produced the much larger apparent magnetic moments of GBHC, they should produce them also for the NS systems and cause profound qualitative spectral and timing differences from GBHC due to interactions with the intrinsic NS magnetic moments.

Observations Supporting the Existence of an Intrinsic Magnetic Moment Inside the Central Compact Object Within the Quasar Q0957+561 by Rudolph Schild, Darryl Leiter, Stanley Robertson

This latter discovery was revealed in the following manner: a) First it was argued (Robertson and Leiter, 2002) that the spectral state switch and quiescent luminosities of low mass x-ray binaries, (LMXB) including GBHC, can be well explained by a magnetic propeller effect that requires an intrinsically magnetized central object. b) Second it was shown (Leiter and Robertson, 2003; Robertson and Leiter, 2003) that this result was consistent with the existence of a new class of gravitationally collapsing solutions of the Einstein field equations in General Relativity which describe highly red shifted, magnetospheric, Eternally Collapsing Objects (MECO) that do not have trapped surfaces leading to event horizons. These general relativistic MECO solutions were shown to emerge from the physical requirement that the structure and radiation transfer properties of the energy-momentum tensor on the right hand side of the Einstein field equations for a collapsing object must contain equipartition magnetic fields that generate a highly redshifted Eddington limited secular collapse process which satisfies the Strong Principle of Equivalence (SPE) requirement of time like world line completeness.


The cause of the long-term variability in quasars is still a matter of debate. Unlike the short-timescale variations (on the order of days), which are adequately described in terms of relativistic beaming effects (e.g., Bregman et al. 1990; Fan & Lin 2000; Vagnetti et al. 2003), the variations at much longer timescales (years to decades) are less well understood. Current scenarios under consideration range from source intrinsic variations due to active galactic nucleus (AGN) accretion disk instabilities (DIs; e.g., Shakura & Sunyaev 1976; Rees 1984; Siemiginowska & Elvis 1997; Kawaguchi et al. 1998; Starling et al. 2004) and possible bursts of supernovae events close to the nucleus (e.g., Terlevich et al. 1992; Cid Fernandes et al. 1996), to source extrinsic variations due to microlensing events along the line of sight to the quasar (e.g., Hawkins 1993, 2002; Alexander 1995; Yonehara et al. 1999; Zackrisson et al. 2003). See also the review article by Ulrich et al. (1997).

Determining which of the various proposed mechanisms actually dominates quasar variability is best done by studying it toward the longest possible time baselines. Depending on the mechanism, each has markedly different variability “power” at  the longer timescales (e.g., Hawkins 2002). This means that if one has a quasar monitoring sample that is both large enough and covers a large enough time baseline, one could address these issues adequately. Unfortunately, given the nature of monitoring programs, this is not something that can be started overnight. The longest quasar light-curve monitoring programs are on the order of 20 yr (e.g., Hawkins 1996) and will take a long time before they are expanded significantly in time baseline.



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